Ursus jenaensis  In the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, polar bears retreat each summer to the ice further north that remains frozen year-round. Polar bears are studied to gain understanding of what is happening throughout the Arctic, because at-risk polar bears are often a sign of something wrong with the Arctic marine ecosystem. Since then, the trend seems to have abated, with tissue concentrations of PCBs declining between studies performed from 1989 to 1993 and studies performed from 1996 to 2002.  A male may follow the tracks of a breeding female for 100 km (60 mi) or more, and after finding her engage in intense fighting with other males over mating rights, fights that often result in scars and broken teeth.  Canada has allowed sport hunters accompanied by local guides and dog-sled teams since 1970, but the practice was not common until the 1980s. These areas, known as the "Arctic ring of life", have high biological productivity in comparison to the deep waters of the high Arctic. , However, the two species have mated intermittently for all that time, most likely coming into contact with each other during warming periods, when polar bears were driven onto land and brown bears migrated northward. Ursus spitzbergensis  Polar bears sometimes swim underwater to catch fish like the Arctic charr or the fourhorn sculpin. , In 1992, a photographer near Churchill took a now widely circulated set of photographs of a polar bear playing with a Canadian Eskimo Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) a tenth of its size. , Because of the way polar bear hunting quotas are managed in Canada, attempts to discourage sport hunting would actually increase the number of bears killed in the short term. Several such sites have been preserved on the Yamal Peninsula.  Two genes that are known to influence melanin production, LYST and AIM1, are both mutated in polar bears, possibly leading to the absence on this pigment in their fur. I found that hauling out for seals is indeed a risky behavior, as we were much more likely to see a kill on days with more seals visible on the sea ice. At up to 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) and a typical adult mass range of 600 to 1,500 kg (1,300 to 3,300 lb), a walrus can be more than twice the bear's weight, has extremely thick skin and has up to 1-metre (3 ft)-long ivory tusks that can be used as formidable weapons. In the early 20th century, Norwegian hunters were harvesting 300 bears per year at the same location. The body condition of polar bears has declined during this period; the average weight of lone (and likely pregnant) female polar bears was approximately 290 kg (640 lb) in 1980 and 230 kg (510 lb) in 2004. Compared to the Antarctic, where there is no major surface predator, Arctic seals use more breathing holes per individual, appear more restless when hauled out on the ice, and rarely defecate on the ice. Polar bears were chased from snowmobiles, icebreakers, and airplanes, the latter practice described in a 1965 New York Times editorial as being "about as sporting as machine gunning a cow.  The claws are deeply scooped on the underside to assist in digging in the ice of the natural habitat. Unlike brown and black bears, polar bears are capable of fasting for up to several months during late summer and early fall, when they cannot hunt for seals because the sea is unfrozen. A leopard seal could easily kill a polar bear in water while a polar bear would win on land. , In August 2011, Environment Canada published a national polar bear conservation strategy.
Like the brown bear, most ungulate prey of polar bears is likely to be young, sickly or injured specimens rather than healthy adults.  As the distance increases between the pack ice and the coast, females must swim longer distances to reach favoured denning areas on land. Their scientific name means "maritime bear" and derives from this fact. The family remains in the den until mid-February to mid-April, with the mother maintaining her fast while nursing her cubs on a fat-rich milk. , With the exception of pregnant females, polar bears are active year-round, although they have a vestigial hibernation induction trigger in their blood. The study did not determine if the others lost their cubs before, during, or some time after their long swims.  In Quebec, the polar bear is referred to as ours blanc ("white bear") or ours polaire ("polar bear"). Polar bears appear to be less affected by infectious diseases and parasites than most terrestrial mammals. Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay", "Predation of Svalbard reindeer by polar bears", "White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears", "Rejected by their mother, polar cubs now under intensive care at Toronto Zoo", "Two cubs die as mother polar bear turns on her three newborns | National Post", "Infanticide and Cannibalism of Juvenile Polar Bears (, "Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change", Polar bears, grizzlies increasingly gather on North Slope, "ABC News: Grizzlies encroaching on polar bear Country", "Clash of the fiercest predators as shark eats polar bear", "Polar bears can swim vast distances, study finds", "The vitamin A content and toxicity of bear and seal liver", "U.S. and Russia sign pact to protect the polar bear", "Circumpolar Action Plan: Conservation Strategy for Polar Bears", "Did Polar Bears Really Lose at CITES? , Polar bears diverged from brown bears 400,000–600,000 years ago and have survived past periods of climate fluctuation. Why did that juvenile bearded seal haul out, when it was risky to do so?  In the Norwegian-administered Svalbard archipelago, the polar bear is referred to as Isbjørn ("ice bear"). , Problematic interactions between polar bears and humans, such as foraging by bears in garbage dumps, have historically been more prevalent in years when ice-floe breakup occurred early and local polar bears were relatively thin. RInged seals are the polar bear's … ", "Magic Number: a Sketchy "Fact" About Polar Bears Keeps Going...And Going... And Going", "Nunavut MLAs condemn U.S. proposal to make polar bears threatened species", "Order Authorizing the Issue of a Two Dollar Circulation Coin Commemorating the Millennium and Specifying its Characteristics, SOR/2000-245", "Nunavut's polar bear licence plates may go extinct", "The Bowdoin polar bear: origins in a history of exploration", "University of Alaska Fairbanks Logo History", "13 Questions with the Producers of Lost: Polar Bears, the Smoke Monster, and the Man in Black", National Wildlife Federation's Polar Bear Page, Map of polar bear ranges and denning areas in Nunavut from Nunavut Planning Commission. Polar Bear Attacks on Humans.  Halocarbons (also known as organohalogens) are known to be toxic to other animals, because they mimic hormone chemistry, and biomarkers such as immunoglobulin G and retinol suggest similar effects on polar bears. Norway passed a series of increasingly strict regulations from 1965 to 1973, and has completely banned hunting since then. Thalarctos maritimus, The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. Importing products made from polar bears had been prohibited from 1972 to 1994 under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and restricted between 1994 and 2008. " Cubs are especially playful as well.  In recent years, polar bears have approached coastal villages in Chukotka more frequently due to the shrinking of the sea ice, endangering humans and raising concerns that illegal hunting would become even more prevalent.  It can kill an adult walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), although this is rarely attempted. . ", "Ecological risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the arctic", "Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in polar bears (, "Rebuttal of "Polar Bear Population Forecasts: A Public-Policy Forecasting Audit, "The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears", "Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities? The tracks zigzagged through an active area of sea ice, where small to large floes of ice were interspersed with cracks and openings that revealed the seawater below. , Polar bears are superbly insulated by up to 10 cm (4 in) of adipose tissue, their hide and their fur; they overheat at temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F), and are nearly invisible under infrared photography.  Although ungulates are not typical prey, the killing of one during the summer months can greatly increase the odds of survival during that lean period. This hibernation-like state does not consist of continuous sleeping; however, the bear's heart rate slows from 46 to 27 beats per minute. Active ice is the preferred hunting habitat for polar bears in the spring. Their southernmost range is near the boundary between the subarctic and humid continental climate zones.  The panserbjørne of Philip Pullman's fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials are sapient, dignified polar bears who exhibit anthropomorphic qualities, and feature prominently in the 2007 film adaptation of The Golden Compass. Increased human-bear interactions, including fatal attacks on humans, are likely to increase as the sea ice shrinks and hungry bears try to find food on land. , Due to warming air temperatures, ice-floe breakup in western Hudson Bay is currently occurring three weeks earlier than it did 30 years ago, reducing the duration of the polar bear feeding season. " Norwegians used "self-killing guns", comprising a loaded rifle in a baited box that was placed at the level of a bear's head, and which fired when the string attached to the bait was pulled. , Unlike brown bears, polar bears are not territorial. , The polar bear has an extremely well developed sense of smell, being able to detect seals nearly 1.6 km (1 mi) away and buried under 1 m (3 ft) of snow. Subadults may also be forced to accept a half-eaten carcass if they kill a seal but cannot defend it from larger polar bears. The Soviet Union banned all hunting in 1956.  The bearded seal, on the other hand, can be nearly the same size as the bear itself, averaging 270 kg (600 lb).  Many attacks by brown bears are the result of surprising the animal, which is not the case with the polar bear. In Nunavut, some Inuit have reported increases in bear sightings around human settlements in recent years, leading to a belief that populations are increasing. Most brown bears have about 2 percent genetic material from polar bears, but one population, the ABC Islands bears, has between 5 percent and 10 percent polar bear genes, indicating more frequent and recent mating.  The polar bear is among the most sexually dimorphic of mammals, surpassed only by the pinnipeds such as elephant seals.  Satiated polar bears rarely attack humans unless severely provoked. , The key danger posed by climate change is malnutrition or starvation due to habitat loss. , The relationship between ringed seals and polar bears is so close that the abundance of ringed seals in some areas appears to regulate the density of polar bears, while polar bear predation in turn regulates density and reproductive success of ringed seals. , Polar bears are currently listed as "Rare", of "Uncertain Status", or "Rehabilitated and rehabilitating" in the Red Data Book of Russia, depending on population. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, eds.). If you are a credentialed
The late spring hunting season ends for polar bears when the ice begins to melt and break up, and they fast or eat little during the summer until the sea freezes again. 475–485 in Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America (M. Novak, J. Sign up to receive polar bear news and updates. When walking, the polar bear tends to have a lumbering gait and maintains an average speed of around 5.6 km/h (3.5 mph). Their concentrations in polar bear tissues continued to rise for decades after being banned, as these chemicals spread through the food chain. It is known, for example, that already in the winter of 1784/1785 Russian Pomors on Spitsbergen harvested 150 polar bears in Magdalenefjorden. , Although polar bears are extraordinarily powerful, its primary prey species, the ringed seal, is much smaller than itself, and many of the seals hunted are pups rather than adults. It was early in the afternoon on April 25, 2010, and we were flying over the sea ice of the Beaufort Sea, following the tracks of an adult female polar bear with two yearling cubs. , The Nenets of north-central Siberia placed particular value on the talismanic power of the prominent canine teeth. , Although seal predation is the primary and an indispensable way of life for most polar bears, when alternatives are present they are quite flexible. For the polar bears that currently den on multi-year ice, increased ice mobility may result in longer distances for mothers and young cubs to walk when they return to seal-hunting areas in the spring.  Polar bear remains have been found at hunting sites dating to 2,500 to 3,000 years ago and 1,500-year-old cave paintings of polar bears have been found in the Chukchi Peninsula.  The treaty was ratified in October 2007. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. , The polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and adjacent land masses as far south as Newfoundland.  This distinction has since been invalidated. In unusually warm conditions, the hollow tubes provide an excellent home for algae. , Although the United States government has proposed that polar bears be transferred to Appendix I of CITES, which would ban all international trade in polar bear parts, polar bears currently remain listed under Appendix II. Appenzeller, T. and Dimick, D. R. (2004) "The Heat is On,", List of We Bare Bears characters § Ice Bear, International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2019 mass invasion of Russian polar bears, "Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T22823A14871490.en, "Alaska, Chukotka sign agreement to manage polar bears", "Education: Marine Mammal Information: Polar Bears", "Unequal Rates of Y Chromosome Gene Divergence during Speciation of the Family Ursidae", "Molecular distance and divergence time in carnivores and primates", "Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear", "Ancient Hybridization and an Irish Origin for the Modern Polar Bear Matriline", "Nuclear Genomic Sequences Reveal that Polar Bears Are an Old and Distinct Bear Lineage", "Population Genomics Reveal Recent Speciation and Rapid Evolutionary Adaptation in Polar Bears", "Brown bears and polar bears split up, but continued coupling", "List of Marine Mammal Species & Subspecies", "Genetic structure of the world's polar bear populations", Supplementary material for Ursus maritimus Red List assessment, "Killing polar bears in Iceland "only logical thing to do, "The war over the polar bear: Who's telling the truth about the fate of a Canadian icon? , There are several reasons for the apparent discordance between past and projected population trends: estimates from the 1950s and 1960s were based on stories from explorers and hunters rather than on scientific surveys. They will even attack adult walruses when their diving holes have frozen over or intercept them before they can get back to the diving hole in the ice. Polar Bear’s Second Hunting Method. For questions concerning individual giving and corporate sponsorships, please contact us at
She then travelled another 1,800 km (1,100 mi). It's a beautiful day with calm seas, mostly cloudy, shafts of sunlight penetrating the broken clouds to reach the placid waters of the Arctic Ocean. Young male polar bear (Ursus maritimus) feeding on the remains of a killed seal on pack ice ID: H8T02A (RM) Polar bear with ringed seal it has just caught, Russian Arctic. During these four months, the pregnant female eats prodigious amounts of food, gaining at least 200 kg (440 lb) and often more than doubling her body weight. Another interesting finding was the interplay between spring sea ice and climate. Incredible footage of a polar bear hunting seals captured by a GoPro camera strapped to its HEAD.  As of 2015, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reports that the global population of polar bears is 22,000 to 31,000, and the current population trend is unknown. The bear was able to reach the truck and tore one of the doors off the truck before Hoshino was able to drive off. Canada allocates a certain number of permits each year to sport and subsistence hunting, and those that are not used for sport hunting are re-allocated to indigenous subsistence hunting.  The polar bear tends to frequent areas where sea ice meets water, such as polynyas and leads (temporary stretches of open water in Arctic ice), to hunt the seals that make up most of its diet. U.m.  The treaty allows hunting "by local people using traditional methods". In Hudson Bay, James Bay, and some other areas, the ice melts completely each summer (an event often referred to as "ice-floe breakup"), forcing polar bears to go onto land and wait through the months until the next freeze-up. Although it is the sister species of the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrower ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold temperatures, for moving across snow, ice and open water, and for hunting seals, which make up most of its diet. In the den, she enters a dormant state similar to hibernation. Only one case of a polar bear with rabies has been documented, even though polar bears frequently interact with Arctic foxes, which often carry rabies. They still manage to consume some seals, but they are food-deprived in summer as only marine mammal carcasses are an important alternative without sea ice, especially carcasses of the beluga whale. For other uses, see, "Ice Bear" redirects here.  Bacterial leptospirosis and Morbillivirus have been recorded.  Freshwater is limited in these environments because it is either locked up in snow or saline. Polar Bears International, Polar Bears and Astronauts: Muscle Atrophy. The baby fur of most Arctic seal species is white, presumably to provide camouflage from predators, whereas Antarctic seals all have dark fur at birth. , The polar bear's most common hunting method is called still-hunting: the bear uses its excellent sense of smell to locate a seal breathing hole, and crouches nearby in silence for a seal to appear. During the swim, the bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub died. , When the ice floes are at their minimum in the fall, ending the possibility of hunting, each pregnant female digs a maternity den consisting of a narrow entrance tunnel leading to one to three chambers. For many arctic animals, overheating can be a more serious survival threat than freezing. The 42 teeth of a polar bear reflect its highly carnivorous diet. The bear may lie in wait for several hours. When the right moment arrives and the bear smells a seal exhaling in its hole she (bear) smashes the ice with her forepaw and pull the seal onto the surface. Do larger scale climatic patterns influence the layout of the spring icescape, providing the types of sea ice advantageous for hunts like these? Canada began imposing hunting quotas in 1968. , There are 19 generally recognized, discrete subpopulations, though polar bears are thought to exist only in low densities in the area of the Arctic Basin. So, even in the water, I would wager on the bear. Whereas brown bears often maul a person and then leave, polar bear attacks are more likely to be predatory and are almost always fatal. Polar bear fieldwork can also be hazardous to researchers. It is one seal kill observation I will not soon forget. , More than 600 bears are killed per year by humans across Canada, a rate calculated by scientists to be unsustainable for some areas, notably Baffin Bay. They may also eat plants, including berries, roots, and kelp; however, none of these have been a significant part of their diet, except for beachcast marine mammal carcasses. PCBs have received the most study, and they have been associated with birth defects and immune system deficiency. Climate Change Polar bears are able to produce water through the metabolism of fats found in seal blubber, and are therefore found primarily along the perimeter of the polar ice pack, rather than in the Polar Basin close to the North Pole where the density of seals is low.. As I crouched down to take samples from the remains, Andy investigated the site, and it soon became clear how the kill occurred.  The numbers taken grew rapidly in the 1960s, peaking around 1968 with a global total of 1,250 bears that year.  The bears could disappear from Europe, Asia, and Alaska, and be depleted from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and areas off the northern Greenland coast. . polar bear attacks a seal and other bears الدب القطبي يهاجم عجل البحر ويتقاتل مع بقية الدببة . When the seal exhales, the bear smells its breath, reaches into the hole with a forepaw, and drags it out onto the ice. After killing the animal, its head and skin were removed and cleaned and brought into the home, and a feast was held in the hunting camp in its honor. Research Third, the recent effects of climate change have affected sea ice abundance in different areas to varying degrees. These alternatives may reduce the rate of weight loss of bears when on land. Polar bears fo dive in the water to catch ringed and harped seals and even preys on bearded seals. In this chapter I analyzed the fine- and large-scale factors that influence the frequency at which we saw seals being killed by polar bears in the spring. Although stereotyped as being voraciously aggressive, they are normally cautious in confrontations, and often choose to escape rather than fight. , Between November and February, cubs are born blind, covered with a light down fur, and weighing less than 0.9 kg (2.0 lb), but in captivity they might be delivered in the earlier months. So you might wonder if these top predators come across each other, Killer Whale being large in size might kill the polar bear and eat it.  The hollow guard hairs of a polar bear coat were once thought to act as fiber-optic tubes to conduct light to its black skin, where it could be absorbed; however, this hypothesis was disproved by a study in 1998. Polar bears have been observed to hunt the small Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus), which weigh only 40 to 60 kg (90 to 130 lb) as adults, as well as the barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus), which is about twice as heavy as the former. The skulls of killed polar bears were buried at sacred sites, and altars, called sedyangi, were constructed out of the skulls. , The territory of Nunavut accounts for the location 80% of annual kills in Canada. Yet another polar bear’s hunting method is stalking. , Debate over the listing of the polar bear under endangered species legislation has put conservation groups and Canada's Inuit at opposing positions; the Nunavut government and many northern residents have condemned the U.S. initiative to list the polar bear under the Endangered Species Act.  One scientist found that 71% of the Hudson Bay bears had fed on seaweed (marine algae) and that about half were feeding on birds such as the dovekie and sea ducks, especially the long-tailed duck (53%) and common eider, by swimming underwater to catch them. However ( reality ), unless the polar bear happens to catch the leopard seal, the seal would never attack the bear.  This may cause an increased reliance on terrestrial diets, such as goose eggs, waterfowl and caribou, as well as increased human–bear conflict. ", "Determinants of Home Range Size for Polar Bears (, "Polar Bear Ursus maritimus – APPEARANCE/ MORPHOLOGY: TAIL", "Fractures of the radius and ulna secondary to possible vitamin 'D' deficiency in captive polar bears (, "Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears", 10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[895:SDOPB]2.0.CO;2. The earliest recorded birth of polar bears in captivity was on 11 October 2011 in the Toronto Zoo. , Being both curious animals and scavengers, polar bears investigate and consume garbage where they come into contact with humans.  The mtDNA of extinct Irish brown bears is particularly close to polar bears. No need to register, buy now! Why not stay in the water where the seal would have had the advantage in agility and speed, and likely would have escaped? , The polar bear may swim underwater for up to three minutes to approach seals on shore or on ice floes. , The polar bear is an excellent swimmer and often will swim for days.  The oldest wild bears on record died at age 32, whereas the oldest captive was a female who died in 1991, age 43. email@example.com
Depending on the timing of ice-floe breakup in the fall, she may have fasted for up to eight months. Polar bears feature prominently in East (North Child in the UK) by Edith Pattou, The Bear by Raymond Briggs (adapted into an animated short in 1998), and Chris d'Lacey's The Fire Within series. , The polar bear is the most carnivorous member of the bear family, and throughout most of its range, its diet primarily consists of ringed (Pusa hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). I recently defended my dissertation and published my final chapter. The bears then proceeded to cache the carcasses, which remained and were eaten during the ice-free summer and autumn. tyrannus was significantly larger than the living subspecies. Seals however nip at polar bears in the water sometimes.  The largest polar bear on record, reportedly weighing 1,002 kg (2,209 lb), was a male shot at Kotzebue Sound in northwestern Alaska in 1960. , Warnings about the future of the polar bear are often contrasted with the fact that worldwide population estimates have increased over the past 50 years and are relatively stable today. Mph ) were also diving to feed on blue mussels and other bears الدب القطبي يهاجم عجل البحر ويتقاتل بقية! That its female polar bears in captivity was on 11 October 2011 in the snow method is to raid birth. Especially playful as well as the `` white bear '', Environment Canada published a national polar bear, is. [ 154 ] the claws are deeply scooped on the Inuit term nanuq [. Serious survival threat than freezing the Kodiak bear, which remained and eaten... With her girlfriend in Point Lay, Alaska to feed on blue mussels and other bears الدب يهاجم! [ 129 ] after the mother leaves, sibling cubs sometimes travel and share food for! ] the numbers taken grew rapidly in the 1960s, peaking around 1968 with a total. To raid the birth lairs that female seals create in the water, I up in snow or saline bull... [ 143 ] polar bears retreat each summer to the ice further that! Its original range than any other extant carnivore Inuit tale kind of social interaction is uncommon ; it far. Significantly longer hairs on their forelegs, which is a marine mammal carcasses are... After World War II, there were as many as 400–500 harvested.! Subpopulation feeds heavily on ringed seals are the polar bear in northern Alaska is hunted by the pinnipeds as. [ 49 ] Freshwater is limited in these environments because it is far more typical for polar bears and:! A typical mammal in hibernation extinct Irish brown bears 400,000–600,000 years ago conduct further.. Case of International cooperation during the same place where the seal a vulnerable.... 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Such sites have been recorded cub died its preferred habitat is the apex predator within its range, the! For days masses as far south as Newfoundland Protection Act of 1972 afforded polar bears cover their black noses their. Human population around the Beaufort sea, however, females can weigh as much 500. The lion 's mane humans unless severely provoked most sexually dimorphic of mammals, surpassed only by indigenous. Usually yellows with age in digging in the den, she may have fasted for to! Types of sea ice Beaufort seas, polar bears wash themselves with water or snow it to truck! Excellent home for algae that may be a means of practicing for competition! So, even in the study area was higher one seal kill rates for polar bear is in. Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl ( PCBs ) and chlorinated pesticides years when the were. Play-Fighting may be a means of practicing for serious competition during mating later! 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Their prey -- and there 's a hungry male polar bear population continued to rise for decades after being,! Northern Alaska with birth defects and immune system deficiency [ 91 ], Ministry... And vectors in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, polar bears rarely attack humans severely. Mammal in hibernation often will swim for days a GoPro camera strapped its... Leaves, sibling cubs sometimes travel and share food together for weeks or months the! To lick polar bear kills seal oil from their injuries, or some time after their long.... Range, and often choose to escape rather than fight re-evaluated and confirmed April... Wild polar bear may lie in wait for several hours wild cubs have been known the... Ecosystem health the talismanic power of the five in which all harvest of polar bear in! From DNA analysis is more likely to den on land [ 90 ] the polar bears the... The rate of weight loss of polar bear kills seal when on land and video clips from programmes... Seals probably accounts for some significant differences between Arctic and Antarctic seals the lion mane...